Intoxication- doctors must to know!
Intoxication (Latin In – in, into, Greek toxikon – poison) – life disoroder caused by toxic substances entering the body from the outside (exogenous intoxication) or formed inside (endogenous intoxication). Exogenous intoxication is often identified with the concept of “poisoning”, while endogenous is called “autointoxication”, “endotoxemia”, and it is caused by metabolic products formed in the body in the dynamics of development of various pathological conditions, and largely determines severity and outcome of sorption processes in the disease. Study simulation experiment makes it possible to determine chronobiological sequence of endotoxemia formation: from the source of toxemia (colon) endogenous pathological substances enter blood, where they bind to plasma protein molecules (albumin and lipoproteins), and then into fixation and biotransformation organs (liver, immune system, lungs), excretion organs (liver, kidneys, GIT, lungs, skin) as well as deposition organs and tissues (adipose tissue, nervous system, bones, endocrine system organs, lymphoid tissue) . This syndrome is accompanied by a large number of diseases, therefore, it is multifactorial in origin and develops the accumulation of endotoxins of various nature and composition. These include natural metabolites products in high concentrations, activated enzymes, inflammatory mediators, medium-sized substances of different nature, peroxide products and other biologically active substances, heterogeneous components of devitalized tissues, aggressive complement components as well as bacterial exo- and endotoxins.
Enterosorption- a new way to cure diarrhoea and allergies
Enterosorption is a treatment of intoxication syndrome in different diseases, based on the ability of enterosorbents to bind and excrete a variety of exogenous substances, microorganisms and their toxins, endogenous intermediate and final metabolites that can accumulate or penetrate into the GIT cavity in the pathological process. Enterosorption is included in the efferent therapy group (from the Latin efferens – output), i.e. a group of therapeutic measures, aim at termination of the toxins of various origins and their elimination from the body. Along with enterosorption, this group includes hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, plasmapheresis, hemosorption etc.
Enterosorbents have a high sorption capacity without being destroyed in the GIT, and are capable of binding exogenous and endogenous agents (microorganisms and their toxins, poisons, excessive metabolites and other harmful substances) by adsorption and absorption, ion exchange or complexation. Enterosorbents absorb endo- and exotoxins from multicomponent solutions, moreover, substances with macro- and mesopores can fix bacteria and viruses on their surface, i.e. have etiotropic effect.
At the same time, enterosorbents bind toxic products normally formed in the intestines without changing the composition of the normal intestinal microflora. But the most significant pathogenic feature of enterosorption is its detoxification effect associated with the absorption of toxic products, not only produced, but also secreted in the intestine. Chymus modification by sorbents is of certain importance.
Structure and Adsorptive Properties of Enterosgel
In terms of surface chemistry Enteropsgel (methylsilicic acid hydrogel), or polymethylsiloxane is a polyfunctional adsorbent which contains both hydrophobic CH3-groups and hydrophilic OH-groups. It is considered that the porous structure of the hydrogel is created by adjoining nano-granules with the size of approximately 50 nm, and with the interstitial space filled with water.
The adsorption capacity ratio of Enterosgel to xerogel for HSA is 28.5:1. This result indicates existence of two mechanisms of adsorption by Enterosgel, (1) physical adsorption of low and medium molecular weight solutes, and (2) co-precipitation in the gel of compounds of high molecular weight, such as blood plasma proteins, enzymes, and bacterial toxins.
Enterosgel high toxins adsorption efficiency
When choosing a drug, the doctor must take into account the following requirements for available enterosorbents:
- high adsorption efficiency with full safety and non-toxicity; good biocompatibility with the tissues;
- high sorption capacity towards the substances removed; selective sorption of medium-weight toxic metabolites;
- no damaging effect on the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines; no impact or a positive impact on the process of secretion and intestinal microbiocenosis;
- convenient pharmaceutical form.
The history of use of enterosorbents
The history of use of enterosorbents dates back for thousands of years: in Egypt over three thousand years ago, charcoal was applied for outdoor and indoor use. In the late 1970s a new generation of sorbents appeared, with high and selective sorption capacity for metabolites and toxic substances. There is a growing interest in enterosorbent connected with the deteriorating state of the environment, especially in the large cities, where environmental hazards exceed the allowed bounds, and foods do not meet the standards. Currently, the value of enterosorption in nutrition and dietetics increases. Per os administration is the most effective for enterosorbents, as sorption process begins in the stomach, and concludes in the small intestine.