The term “enterosorption” has been proposed to define a method of sorption therapy based on daily oral administration of “enterosorbents”, i.e. significant (20-50 g) doses of highly activated synthetic carbons. An important common feature of enterosorbents, is the absence of classic pharmacokinetics that is caused by their localization exclusively in the gastro-intestinal tract, and also an ability to elevate significantly the volume of indigestible food residue, which allows them to perform the functions of dietary fibers [4, 5] (Belyakov 1991, Nikolaev 2005).
In ancient America, Egypt, India, Greece and charcoal and clay were used for the treatment of poisoning. Medicine as adding where something is missing, and removing where there is too much (Hippocrates).
In the “Canon of Medicine” Avicenna called body cleaning as the basic postulate of the art of health care. Homotoxicology was developed by Dr Reckeweg (Germany) during the 1940’s. Diseases are the result of the body’s attempt to selfheal by ridding itself of toxins.
In the early 60’s Greek nephrologist Hippocratos Jatzidis first cleared the blood of uremic patients with activated charcoal (hemocarboperfusion) but the methods was expensive, complicated, and had not commercial success.
Enterosgel belongs to a class of silicon-containing enterosorbents, the same class as different types of clays and zeolites, and amorphous silicon dioxide. It is interesting to note that silicon-containing materials rather than activated carbon should be considered the first enterosorbents, because the tradition of eating natural clays for improvement of well-being, jugulation of diarrhea, and, possibly, for treatment of deficiency in microelements, goes back to bygone times, and as a phenomenon known as geophagia it is observed particularly in primates.
In the late 70’s of the XX century in Russia there was born an idea of creating universal oral detoxification medicine, which could preserve health and prolong lives.
In 1986-1988 Enterosgel was used in military personnel aged 30-46 years who were carrying out work in the area of the 4th reactor of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The therapeutic effect of those who received Enterosgel are good – in 75%, satisfactory in 25%.
Enterosgel was in the first aid kits for athletes Sochi 2014.
The Swiss company Bioline Pharmaceutical® holds Enterosgel patent.
Structure and Adsorptive Properties of Enterosgel
In terms of surface chemistry Enteropsgel (methylsilicic acid hydrogel), or polymethylsiloxane is a polyfunctional adsorbent which contains both hydrophobic CH3-groups and hydrophilic OH-groups. It is considered that the porous structure of the hydrogel is created by adjoining nano-granules with the size of approximately 50 nm, and with the interstitial space filled with water.
The adsorption capacity ratio of Enterosgel to xerogel for HSA is 28.5:1. This result indicates existence of two mechanisms of adsorption by Enterosgel, (1) physical adsorption of low and medium molecular weight solutes, and (2) co-precipitation in the gel of compounds of high molecular weight, such as blood plasma proteins, enzymes, and bacterial toxins.